Tanya :

Bang Reza, bikinin tutorial remastering dong … ^_^

Jawab :

OK, berikut ini tutorial dasar remastering ubuntu menggunakan lingkungan chroot. Untuk mempermudah saya padukan antara penggunaan GUI dan Terminal.

Catatan : Klik gambar untuk memperbesar

Selamat menikmati

Langkah 1 : Ekstrak ISO

Tentukan “induk” Ubuntu yang akan anda pakai, misalnya Ubuntu 10.10. Ekstrak file *.iso – nya :

Klik kanan di file *.iso tersebut lalu pilih “Extract Here”

Anda akan mendapatkan sebuah folder seperti di gambar :

Ganti nama folder tersebut, misalnya ubuntugue

Buat salinan dari folder tersebut kita beri nama edit :

Lalu masuk ke folder edit,

lalu masuk ke folder casper

Lalu pindahkan file “filesystem.squashfs” keluar dari folder casper tersebut.

Nah, kini kita akan melakukan ekstraksi filesystem.squashfs itu dengan unsquashfs.

Install terlebih dahulu unsquashfs dengan perintah :

sudo apt-get install squashfs-tools

Lalu kita ekstrak file tadi dengan perintah

sudo unsquashfs filesystem.squashfs

Prosesnya akan tampak seperti ini :

rezaervani@rezaervani-laptop:~/Documents/REMASTERING$ sudo unsquashfs filesystem.squashfs
Parallel unsquashfs: Using 2 processors
122450 inodes (125068 blocks) to write
[=========================================================-] 125068/125068 100%
created 91334 files
created 15295 directories
created 30605 symlinks
created 85 devices
created 0 fifos

Lalu masuk ke folder hasil ekstraksi tadi :

Jika anda perhatikan, isinya sama dengan sebuah sistem LINUX kan ?

Note : Setelah ekstraksi Anda dapat menghapus filesystem.squashfs yang tadi jadi sumber ekstraksi

Tapi kali ini kita tidak akan bekerja di GUI. Gunakan terminal untuk tahap-tahap selanjutnya dibawah ini :

Chroot

Kita akan menjadikan folder tadi sebagai lingkungan kerja kita menggunakan chroot. Lakukan perintah :

sudo chroot squashfs-root

Anda akan melihat perubahan prompt terminal anda seperti contoh :

root@rezaervani-laptop:/#

Ini berarti kita sudah berada di lingkungan chroot, dan area sistem chroot kita adalah folder squashfs-root tadi

Bekerja di lingkungan chroot ini sama saja dengan bekerja di Ubuntu Anda. Anda bisa menginstall program yang ingin anda tambahkan ke Ubuntu remastering Anda dengan perintah apt-get install, menghapus dengan perintah apt-get purge dan lainnya. Seberapa canggih hasil remastering anda bergantung pula pada seberapa banyak pengetahuan anda tentang sistem LINUX dan konfigurasinya.

Intinya perubahan Ubuntu versi anda dilakukan di chroot ini. Termasuk perubahan desktop wallpaper, tampilan booting dll. Lakukan sesuai keinginan anda.

Beberapa Konfigurasi Penting

Ada beberapa konfigurasi yang membutuhkan keberadaan direktori /proc /sys dan /dev, siasati dengan melakukan mounting direktori tersebut dari sistem host anda (Ubuntu non chroot) ke sistem chroot anda, dengan perintah :

mount -t proc none /proc/
mount -t sysfs none /sys/
mount -t devpts none /dev/pts

Kondisikan juga HOME anda ke direktori /root dengan perintah

export HOME=/root

Edit sources.list di chroot anda
Seperti di sistem host, anda juga dapat mengedit sources.list anda agar sesuai dengan keinginan anda

Koneksi internet di lingkungan chroot
Anda butuh koneksi internet untuk proses instalasi sebuah program, pastikan DNS anda benar dengan mengedit file resolv.conf di lingkungan chroot anda

sudo nano /etc/resolv.conf

Isi dengan nomor IP DNS Anda

Biasakan menggunakan editor non GUI
Walapun anda bisa menggunakan editor berbasis GUI ketika mengedit sebuah konfigurasi di lingkungan chroot, tapi menggunakan editor non GUI seperti vim atau nano akan lebih membantu

Keluar dari Lingkungan chroot

Setelah selesai melakukan kustomisasi, misalnya menambah perangkat lunak, merubah tampilan dan lain-lain, anda dapat keluar dari lingkungan chroot.

Tapi lakukan dengan bersih

Bersihkan dulu sisa-sisa instalasi anda

apt-get clean

Bersihkan juga file-file yang mungkin tersisa di direktori /tmp

rm -rf /tmp/*

Jangan lupa juga kembali konfigurasi anda yang tadi dilakukan di file resolv.conf dan sources.list

Jangan lupa unmount direktori /proc dan /sys

umount /proc/
umount /sys/

Keluar dari lingkungan chroot dengan perintah

exit

Memulangkan filesystem.squashfs

Setelah tadi ekstraksi filesystem.squashfs kita edit, kini kita akan mengemasnya kembali menjadi filesystem.squashfs

Menyiapkan Kepulangan filesystem.squashfs

Kembali ke direktori “edit”, tempat tadi filesystem.squashfs kita ambil. Kita akan menyiapkan dulu beberapa hal yakni mendaftarkan perangkat lunak baru di filesystem.manifest

Masuk ke folder casper di direktori “edit”, rubah file permission dari filesytem.manifest agar bisa ditulis

chmod +w filesystem.manifest

Lalu daftarkan perangkat lunak yang tadi anda tambahkan ke filesystem.manifest (di dalam folder casper)

sudo chroot squashfs-root dpkg-query -W --showformat='${Package} ${Version}\n' \
 > edit/casper/filesystem.manifest

Salin filesystem.manifest ke filesystem.manifest-desktop (di dalam folder casper)

sudo cp filesystem.manifest filesystem.manifest-desktop

Jangan lupa tambahkan ubiquity agar distro anda bisa diinstall

sudo sed -i '/ubiquity/d' edit/casper/filesystem.manifest-desktop
sudo sed -i '/casper/d' edit/casper/filesystem.manifest-desktop

Kemas lagi folder squashfs-root tadi menjadi file filesystem.squashfs

sudo mksquashfs squashfs-root filesystem.squashfs

Prosesnya akan tampak seperti contoh berikut :

rezaervani@rezaervani-laptop:~/Documents/REMASTERING$ sudo mksquashfs squashfs-root/ filesystem.squashfs
Parallel mksquashfs: Using 2 processors
Creating 4.0 filesystem on filesystem.squashfs, block size 131072.
[===========================================================/] 94378/94378 100%
Exportable Squashfs 4.0 filesystem, data block size 131072
	compressed data, compressed metadata, compressed fragments
	duplicates are removed
Filesystem size 676471.47 Kbytes (660.62 Mbytes)
	38.05% of uncompressed filesystem size (1777711.75 Kbytes)
Inode table size 1359941 bytes (1328.07 Kbytes)
	25.48% of uncompressed inode table size (5338135 bytes)
Directory table size 1345564 bytes (1314.03 Kbytes)
	40.79% of uncompressed directory table size (3298959 bytes)
Number of duplicate files found 9776
Number of inodes 137320
Number of files 91335
Number of fragments 6190
Number of symbolic links  30605
Number of device nodes 85
Number of fifo nodes 0
Number of socket nodes 0
Number of directories 15295
Number of ids (unique uids + gids) 30
Number of uids 9
	root (0)
	man (6)
	daemon (1)
	couchdb (105)
	hplip (113)
	saned (112)
	usbmux (107)
	libuuid (100)
	avahi-autoipd (103)
Number of gids 28
	root (0)
	video (44)
	audio (29)
	tty (5)
	fuse (104)
	kmem (15)
	disk (6)
	daemon (1)
	dip (30)
	lpadmin (105)
	couchdb (113)
	shadow (42)
	netdev (112)
	crontab (102)
	mail (8)
	avahi (111)
	ssl-cert (106)
	utmp (43)
	messagebus (107)
	games (60)
	pulse-access (116)
	staff (50)
	libuuid (101)
	src (40)
	admin (119)
	mlocate (108)
	gdm (120)
	adm (4)

Pulangkan kembali filesystem.squashfs ini ke dalam direktori edit/casper

sudo cp filesystem.squashfs edit/casper

Selanjutnya berikan nama distro anda di file README.diskdefines

sudo gedit edit/README.diskdefines

Isinya tampak seperti :

#define DISKNAME  Ubuntu 10.10 "Maverick Meerkat" - Release i386
#define TYPE  binary
#define TYPEbinary  1
#define ARCH  i386
#define ARCHi386  1
#define DISKNUM  1
#define DISKNUM1  1
#define TOTALNUM  0
#define TOTALNUM0  1

Ganti Kalimat “Maverick Meerkat” dengan nama yang anda inginkan

Menghitung ulang MD5 HASH

Hapus dulu file md5sum yang lama

sudo rm md5sum.txt

Lalu hitung ulang

find -type f -print0 | sudo xargs -0 md5sum | grep -v isolinux/boot.cat \
| sudo tee md5sum.txt

Prosesnya akan tampak seperti berikut :

rezaervani@rezaervani-laptop:~/Documents/REMASTERING/edit$ find -type f -print0 | sudo xargs -0 md5sum | grep -v isolinux/boot.cat | sudo tee md5sum.txt
[sudo] password for rezaervani:
62bf7841341b7faa69062fd0095af116  ./autorun.inf
3f24a4dab85ffdf52d189fc2af5bcee3  ./README.diskdefines
fe6fa04c981a9d3835f12f27bd6dda71  ./usb-creator.exe
6b711ba074b35f57ff4cb4c453109709  ./pool/restricted/b/bcmwl/bcmwl-kernel-source_5.60.48.36+bdcom-0ubuntu5_i386.deb
d21ce544f70c9c7d6a3af452d3e4b7c3  ./pool/restricted/s/sl-modem/sl-modem-daemon_2.9.11~20100718-2_i386.deb
4e3190bd7e336e9640cc643118e43a2b  ./pool/main/g/gcc-defaults/g++_4.4.4-1ubuntu2_i386.deb
09411ea75687bac8174dc18c65570547  ./pool/main/g/gcc-4.4/g++-4.4_4.4.4-14ubuntu5_i386.deb
67259128a0d7c83e7c7b56e270a0741e  ./pool/main/g/gcc-4.4/libstdc++6-4.4-dev_4.4.4-14ubuntu5_i386.deb
4d4d776758c9d1535b486000ff673eff  ./pool/main/f/fakeroot/fakeroot_1.14.4-1ubuntu1_i386.deb
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561b1be68e99e1c7c9e6664fb6e87e81  ./pool/main/liba/libalgorithm-merge-perl/libalgorithm-merge-perl_0.08-1_all.deb
3b4bb5a8f62636fd45480eecbe0520ea  ./pool/main/d/dpkg/dpkg-dev_1.15.8.4ubuntu3_all.deb
0708808b66daffa5520d270d76151417  ./pool/main/d/dpkg/libdpkg-perl_1.15.8.4ubuntu3_all.deb
bd0c1ef87e2466d74ea6ac42755ea29e  ./pool/main/d/dkms/dkms_2.1.1.2-3ubuntu1_all.deb
f8b821c5b94f3f06c779124959a47db2  ./pool/main/m/mouseemu/mouseemu_0.16-0ubuntu7_i386.deb
96e9bf35608b3380ca8dc6920255de3b  ./pool/main/b/build-essential/build-essential_11.5_i386.deb
a3279e18d400c54047b49853462d02b4  ./pool/main/b/b43-fwcutter/b43-fwcutter_013-2_i386.deb
3aafaec3951819c3e353e6fd635bc289  ./pool/main/l/linux-wlan-ng/linux-wlan-ng-doc_0.2.9+dfsg-4_all.deb
90728e63cba4cbc65d0d653ab400d164  ./pool/main/l/linux-wlan-ng/linux-wlan-ng_0.2.9+dfsg-4_i386.deb
67169557c4c6fe5ea454057af102a8e4  ./pool/main/l/lupin/lupin-support_0.32_all.deb
1b8a459712dd9a5a9b3aecd16a8219ab  ./pool/main/w/wvstreams/libwvstreams4.6-extras_4.6.1-1ubuntu1_i386.deb
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cb3d5b5de9f45e5a107131c7230679f9  ./pool/main/s/setserial/setserial_2.17-45.2ubuntu2_i386.deb
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d41d8cd98f00b204e9800998ecf8427e  ./dists/stable
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b9998c1a3d006ee847c3afca79b7cd7c  ./isolinux/id.hlp
34a7700476f8e504d7e7c347f7938462  ./isolinux/nl.hlp
ed291570fb14bef077e0918d282ecba3  ./isolinux/gfxboot.c32
d8404cd91bd219396a7c9c7ee648135d  ./isolinux/eo.hlp
6562987a6ef0957b5aa7a53395a572da  ./isolinux/kk.hlp
72be644613d0efdaceddf639020e695a  ./isolinux/es.tr
7d6249d9a4549a0831f2f81187f36367  ./isolinux/hu.tr
d41d8cd98f00b204e9800998ecf8427e  ./isolinux/he.hlp
5e2f6db9533e101ebe42f86c456a3d93  ./isolinux/sl.tr
92f34c9bdd5fdb699ea3ba2ce507bec4  ./isolinux/lt.tr
d41d8cd98f00b204e9800998ecf8427e  ./isolinux/da.hlp
7931deafe0d94adab1c1b4f2eb682fdd  ./isolinux/sk.tr
16e7d4b2e4c890700b9f55d143b71394  ./isolinux/f6.txt
40f7f6fe67f21f800869166546ecd874  ./isolinux/f3.txt
10e5be68a39c362016fde80090b9fc37  ./isolinux/eu.tr
98ae47e0ec0afad988945b0ae39336db  ./isolinux/bootlogo
7be3c47076f856f1376f371b16554df3  ./isolinux/ca.hlp
7af118c3b40fcdeb09bb3af7e3172c9b  ./isolinux/ga.tr
81ac79023079ecbb2ae6b634993a7cc1  ./isolinux/gl.hlp
6ea084dd2c79f68d6aa04c9d2c142a55  ./isolinux/txt.cfg
2aa7ecd474c9e91dcb908c90cff3220f  ./isolinux/splash.pcx
356cbe18e328ee3b6fa7196e2ff84789  ./isolinux/vi.hlp
a9f588aab4d29ffcfcbc722c154a623b  ./isolinux/fi.hlp
79ec0f7689bf80fc3f0e339c6c20bfcd  ./isolinux/ku.tr
218b8e4ce681f679f1e5354df048c0a7  ./isolinux/pt_BR.hlp
5ff3d2c8891318ad0a4d4abd5f5c6403  ./isolinux/sq.tr
1cffa5b2bd56d98a4e601bcc61b178dd  ./isolinux/zh_CN.tr
b63424ca88cede7e58e99aad15b1a671  ./isolinux/sq.hlp
ba139ff8266a16b0ec38c47bb2234e73  ./isolinux/en.tr
0f3651a5fc61c43ec3188d351453fece  ./isolinux/am.tr
f0c0082b6334ccfcdd22280873ae8d9a  ./isolinux/f5.txt
446860a52b097d683b6cfe94d67d07ff  ./isolinux/isolinux.cfg
4d38b7bd1f15c8793aa577cb18010524  ./isolinux/de.tr
bb9677b7910d4b887f9360c073b23875  ./isolinux/en.hlp
87c414f23b45787297982cd9a7662edf  ./isolinux/ro.tr
0f225452dac9d9290751412d4d1b82ee  ./isolinux/sv.hlp
c0dc33fc5b2ede783fa2a30cf3021e34  ./isolinux/et.tr
a50e09c06f12b12b98aedbc1240ae971  ./isolinux/ca.tr
bd88a24f9d2b9ef6b756e5309f13b5d9  ./isolinux/bs.tr
e0e2829a5b55cd04494102c22cc89847  ./isolinux/nn.tr
d41d8cd98f00b204e9800998ecf8427e  ./isolinux/hi.hlp
0161623eddd2bf7eca37ebd5f0b5fd3f  ./isolinux/zh_CN.hlp
8ecf9057b96e318e331af79a949f7b64  ./isolinux/tr.hlp
4579b4ab2958f6e68dff65844c773d64  ./isolinux/isolinux.bin
edfed969eeefce285335ede968c72f64  ./[BOOT]/Bootable_NoEmulation.img

Mengemas distro kita menjadi *ISO

Kita akan gunakan program mkisofs untuk mengemas folder remastering kita tadi menjadi ISO

sudo mkisofs -D -r -V "$IMAGE_NAME" -cache-inodes -J -l -b isolinux/isolinux.bin -c \
isolinux/boot.cat -no-emul-boot -boot-load-size 4 -boot-info-table -o \
../ubuntu-9.04.1-desktop-i386-custom.iso .

Note : Jangan lupa tanda titik di akhir perintah tersebut

Proses pengemasan ISO dengan mkisofs akan tampak seperti :

rezaervani@rezaervani-laptop:~/Documents/REMASTERING/edit$ sudo mkisofs -D -r -V "$IMAGE_NAME" -cache-inodes -J -l -b isolinux/isolinux.bin -c isolinux/boot.cat -no-emul-boot -boot-load-size 4 -boot-info-table -o ../gubahan10.10-desktop-i386-custom.iso .
I: -input-charset not specified, using utf-8 (detected in locale settings)
Size of boot image is 4 sectors -> No emulation
  1.41% done, estimate finish Sun Apr  3 15:11:09 2011
  2.82% done, estimate finish Sun Apr  3 15:11:44 2011
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 98.62% done, estimate finish Sun Apr  3 15:11:39 2011
Total translation table size: 2048
Total rockridge attributes bytes: 28339
Total directory bytes: 129258
Path table size(bytes): 828
Max brk space used 3b000
354918 extents written (693 MB)

Maka selesailah sudah proses remastering kita.

Uji dengan menggunakan Virtual Box

Anda dapat mengulang proses kustomisasi kapan saja dengan masuk kembali ke lingkungan chroot ke folder squashfs-root tadi dan mengulang proses-proses yang ada diatas.

Mudah bukan ? Selamat mencoba

Pertanyaan apapun seputar remastering sangat terbuka di ruang komentar di bawah artikel ini

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